Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) stand at the forefront of many recent developments in deep learning. Yet a major difficulty with these models is their tendency to overfit, with dropout shown to fail when applied to recurrent layers. Recent results at the intersection of Bayesian modelling and deep learning offer a Bayesian interpretation of common deep learning techniques such as dropout. This grounding of dropout in approximate Bayesian inference suggests an extension of the theoretical results, offering insights into the use of dropout with RNN models. We apply this new variational inference based dropout technique in LSTM and GRU models, assessing it on language modelling and sentiment analysis tasks. The new approach outperforms existing techniques, and to the best of our knowledge improves on the single model state-of-the-art in language modelling with the Penn Treebank (73.4 test perplexity). This extends our arsenal of variational tools in deep learning.
Even though active learning forms an important pillar of machine learning, deep learning tools are not prevalent within it. Deep learning poses several difficulties when used in an active learning setting. First, active learning (AL) methods generally rely on being able to learn and update models from small amounts of data. Recent advances in deep learning, on the other hand, are notorious for their dependence on large amounts of data. Second, many AL acquisition functions rely on model uncertainty, yet deep learning methods rarely represent such model uncertainty. In this paper we combine recent advances in Bayesian deep learning into the active learning framework in a practical way. We develop an active learning framework for high dimensional data, a task which has been extremely challenging so far, with very sparse existing literature. Taking advantage of specialised models such as Bayesian convolutional neural networks, we demonstrate our active learning techniques with image data, obtaining a significant improvement on existing active learning approaches. We demonstrate this on both the MNIST dataset, as well as for skin cancer diagnosis from lesion images (ISIC2016 task).
This paper introduces the Deep Recurrent Attentive Writer (DRAW) neural network architecture for image generation. DRAW networks combine a novel spatial attention mechanism that mimics the foveation of the human eye, with a sequential variational auto-encoding framework that allows for the iterative construction of complex images. The system substantially improves on the state of the art for generative models on MNIST, and, when trained on the Street View House Numbers dataset, it generates images that cannot be distinguished from real data with the naked eye.